What is journalism?

The action of acquiring, evaluating, generating, and presenting news and information is known as journalism. It is also a result of these endeavours.

Certain distinct qualities and practises distinguish journalism from other activities and products. These characteristics not only distinguish journalism from other types of communication, but they also make it essential in democratic society. According to history, the more democratic a society is, the more news and information it has.


The Acta Diurna, a news sheet circulating in ancient Rome and thought to date from before 59 BCE, is the earliest known journalistic product. Important everyday events, including as public addresses, were documented in the Acta Diurna. It was printed every day and hung in conspicuous locations. A court circular known as a bao, or “report,” was given to government officials in China during the Tang dynasty. This gazette was published in various forms and under numerous names until 1911, when the Qing dynasty came to an end. In the year 1609, the first regularly published newspapers debuted in German cities and Antwerp. The Weekly Newes, the earliest English newspaper, was published in 1622. The Daily Courant, one of the first daily newspapers, was published in 1702.

Newspapers in the 18th century came to enjoy the reportorial freedom and important function that they have remained to this day, despite government-imposed censorship, taxation, and other restrictions. Because of rising demand for newspapers as a result of increased literacy and the introduction of steam- and later electric-powered presses, daily circulation increased from thousands to hundreds of thousands, and eventually to millions.

The field of work

A increasing feeling of professionalism characterised journalism in the twentieth century. This trend was fueled by four major factors: (1) a growing sense of social responsibility among journalists, (2) specialised journalism education, (3) a growing literature dealing with the history, problems, and techniques of mass communication, and (4) a growing literature dealing with the history, problems, and techniques of mass communication.

The founding of England’s chartered Institute of Journalists in 1883 marked the beginning of a journalistic organisation. The institute served as a trade union and a professional organisation, similar to the American Newspaper Guild, which was founded in 1933, and the Fédération Nationale de la Presse Française.

Most journalists began their trade as apprentices, starting as copyboys or cub reporters, before the latter half of the nineteenth century. In 1879–184, the University of Missouri (Columbia) offered the first university journalism course. The first graduate school in journalism was founded in 1912 at Columbia University in New York City, thanks to a gift from New York City editor and publisher Joseph Pulitzer. The increased complexity of news reporting and newspaper operations need a significant amount of specialised training. Editors also discovered that in-depth reporting of specific forms of news, such as politics, business, economics, and science, frequently necessitated reporters having a background in these fields. The introduction of motion pictures, radio, and television as news medium necessitated the development of an ever-growing arsenal of new skills and techniques for obtaining and delivering information. Journalism and communications courses were common at colleges by the 1950s.